John Edmonstone

In 1825, Charles Darwin mentioned in a letter to his sister that he was taking lessons in taxidermy from:

…. a negro [who] lived in Edinburgh”.

John Edmonstone, who had been enslaved and was from Demerara (in present day Guyana), is the man who taught this skill to the then Edinburgh University student. As with many other great scientists, Darwin was inspired by some people whose contribution has been overlooked and uncredited. Edmonstone is one such individual, almost lost to history, but who was hugely influential on Darwin’s thinking.

There are only small clues as to how he taught one of the greatest figures in the history of science a skill that played no small part in his thinking about how life developed over time.

Little is known of Edmonstone’s early life, except that he was born in the second half of the 1700s. The Edinburgh Post Office directory for 1824/5 records him as living at 37 Lothian Street. He earned his living stuffing birds at the National Museum and teaching taxidermy to students.

Darwin, who paid Edmonstone one guinea per lesson in bird taxidermy, also had hours of conversations with him about his homeland and its tropical rainforests, plants and animals.

It fired Darwin’s imagination and his interest in tropical regions. In this piece below written by James McNish we get an insight into this man’s life and influence:

John Edmonstone: The man who taught Darwin taxidermy

By James McNish

John Edmonstone was a former enslaved man who taught the young Charles Darwin the skill of taxidermy. This skill helped Darwin preserve the birds that fermented his ideas about evolution.

Many Black people’s contributions to science are hidden from history and we have to reconstruct their stories from the margins of more famous naturalists’ lives.

One such intriguing figure is John Edmonstone. A former enslaved person from Guyana, John was living in Edinburgh when he met a young Charles Darwin and taught him the skill of taxidermy. This was fundamental to Darwin’s ability to preserve the specimens he collected on his five-year voyage on the Beagle.

Though we only have scant details on Edmonstone’s life, what we know reveals that he was a talented and respected taxidermist and naturalist.

Edmonstone in Guyana

John Edmonstone was enslaved on a timber plantation in Demerara (now part of Guyana), South America, owned by Scotsman Charles Edmonstone (hence John’s surname – his birth name remains unknown).

The eccentric naturalist Charles Waterton NOTE: Waterton’s family also enslaved people visited Charles Edmonstone’s plantations a number of times on his travels through Guyana.

Waterton had developed new methods to preserve bird skins, which he taught to John, who accompanied him on some collecting expeditions. Despite Waterton believing that John ‘had poor abilities, and it required much time and patience to drive anything into him’, Darwin’s later recollections of John’s skill seems to contradict this assessment.

Edmonstone in Scotland

Plantation owner Charles Edmonstone returned to Scotland in 1817 and John came with him. Although we don’t know if John was already free when he arrived, he would have become a free man on entering Scotland. Owning slaves was banned in Scotland in 1778 following the case of James Knight.

At first, John lived in Glasgow. By 1824 he was in Edinburgh, making a living for himself working for the University of Edinburgh’s zoological museum and living at 37 Lothian Street.

Edmonstone and Darwin

Darwin went to Edinburgh in 1825 when he was 16 to study medicine, but he didn’t really enjoy the subject and only stayed for two years. While there, he did grow his interest in natural history, attending talks and undertaking his own investigations.

Darwin’s lodgings were at 11 Lothian Street, near Edmonstone’s. Darwin hired Edmonstone to give him private lessons. Though in a letter to his sister it seems price was the main initial motivator: ‘I am going to learn to stuff birds, from a blackamoor I believe an old servant of Dr Duncan: it has the recommendation of cheapness, if it has nothing else’, Darwin later mentioned in his autobiography:

A negro lived in Edinburgh, who had travelled with Waterton, and gained his livelihood by stuffing birds, which he did excellently: he gave me lessons for payment, and I used often to sit with him, for he was a very pleasant and intelligent man.

Edmonstone charged Darwin one guinea for an hour every day for two months. As well as the time spent on instruction, the two must have conversed on the natural history Edmonstone knew first-hand from South America.

Thanks to Edmonstone’s teachings, Darwin’s preservation skills were put to great use during his voyage on the Beagle (1831-1836). Of the many specimens Darwin collected, almost 500 were bird skins. The Museum holds nearly 200 of these.

Perhaps the most scientifically evocative of the skins are the mockingbirds collected in the Galapagos Islands. It was the Galapagos mockingbirds, rather than the better known finches, that helped precipitate Darwin’s thoughts on evolution

We can’t be sure that Darwin himself prepared all the bird skins, since specimen preparation was something that was carried out collectively on the Beagle. However, the skills that Darwin learnt from Edmonstone would have been passed down to his assistants.

A life in the margins

There are scant details of Edmonstone’s later life. We know he was still living in Edinburgh in 1833 and had moved to 6 South St David Street.

We can only speculate as to the effect his story had on the young Darwin. His accounts of South America must certainly have been inspiring to Darwin. Did Edmonstone help form Darwin’s abolitionist viewpoint? We know from his journals from the Beagle that Darwin noticed cruel acts during the voyage which he found repugnant.

n 2009, a plaque was unveiled in his memory on Lothian Street, although it has since disappeared. But awareness of Edmonstone has grown in recent years and we can hope that his story, and that of other Black people contributing to the study of natural history, continues to be told.

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